Commentary Critical and Explanatory on
the Whole Bible
Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset, and David
SECOND: The Sonship of Believers--Their Future
Inheritance--The Intercession of the Spirit for Them (Ro 8:14-27).
For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God, they, etc.--"these are sons of God." Hitherto
the apostle has spoken of the Spirit simply as a power through which believers mortify sin: now he speaks of Him as a gracious,
loving Guide, whose "leading"-- enjoyed by all in whom is the Spirit of God's dear Son--shows that they also are
"sons of God."
15. For, etc.--"For
ye received not (at the time of your conversion) the spirit of bondage," that is, "The spirit ye received was not
a spirit of bondage. "again--gendering to fear--as under the law which "worketh wrath," that is, "Such
was your condition before ye believed, living in legal bondage, haunted with incessant forebodings under a sense of unpardoned
sin. But it was not to perpetuate that wretched state that ye received the Spirit."
but ye have received--"ye received "the spirit of adoption, whereby--rather, "wherein."
we cry, Abba, Father--The word "cry" is emphatic, expressing the spontaneousness,
the strength, and the exuberance of the final emotions. In Ga 4:6 this cry is said to proceed from the Spirit in us, drawing
forth the filial exclamation in our hearts. Here, it is said to proceed from our own hearts under the vitalizing energy of
the Spirit, as the very element of the new life in believers (compare Mt 10:19, 20; and see on Ro 8:4). "Abba" is
the Syro-Chaldaic word for "Father"; and the Greek word for that is added, not surely to tell the reader that both
mean the same thing, but for the same reason which drew both words from the lips of Christ Himself during his agony in the
garden (Mr 14:36).
He, doubtless, loved to utter His Father's name in both
the accustomed forms; beginning with His cherished mother tongue, and adding that of the learned. In this view the use of
both words here has a charming simplicity and warmth.
16. The Spirit itself--It should be "Himself" (see on Ro 8:26).
beareth witness with our spirit, that we
are the children--"are children"
of God--The testimony of our own spirit is borne in that cry of conscious
sonship, "Abba, Father"; but we are not therein alone; for the Holy Ghost within us, yea, even in that very cry
which it is His to draw forth, sets His own distinct seal to ours; and thus, "in the mouth of two witnesses" the
thing is established. The apostle had before called us "sons of God," referring to our adoption; here the word changes
to "children," referring to our new birth. The one expresses the dignity to which we are admitted; the other the
new life which we receive. The latter is more suitable here; because a son by adoption might not be heir of the property,
whereas a son by birth certainly is, and this is what the apostle is now coming to.
17. And if children, then heirs--"heirs also."
heirs of God--of our Father's kingdom.
and joint-heirs with Christ--as the "First-born among many brethren" (Ro
8:29), and as "Heir of all things" (Heb 1:2).
if so be that we suffer--"provided we be suffering with
that we may be also glorified together--with Him. This necessity of conformity to Christ in suffering in
order to participate in His glory, is taught alike by Christ Himself and by His apostles (Joh 12:24-26; Mt 16:24, 25; 2Ti
18. For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are
not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us--that is, "True, we must suffer with Christ, if
we would partake of His glory; but what of that? For if such sufferings are set over against the coming glory, they sink into
19-22. For, etc.--"The apostle, fired with
the thought of the future glory of the saints, pours forth this splendid passage, in which he represents the whole creation
groaning under its present degradation, and looking and longing for the revelation of this glory as the end and consummation
of its existence" [HODGE].
27 King James Version (KJV)
1 When the morning was come, all the chief priests and
elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death:
2 And when they had bound him, they led him away, and delivered him
to Pontius Pilate the governor.
3 Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself, and
brought again the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders,
4 Saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed the
innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us? see thou to that.
5 And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and departed,
and went and hanged himself.
the chief priests took the silver pieces, and said, It is not lawful for to put them into the treasury, because it is the
price of blood.
they took counsel, and bought with them the potter's field, to bury strangers in.
8 Wherefore that field was called, The field of blood,
unto this day.
was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of
him that was valued, whom they of the children of Israel did value;
10 And gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord appointed me.
11 And Jesus stood before
the governor: and the governor asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And Jesus said unto him, Thou sayest.
12 And when he was accused
of the chief priests and elders, he answered nothing.
13 Then said Pilate unto him, Hearest thou not how many things they witness against
he answered him to never a word; insomuch that the governor marvelled greatly.
15 Now at that feast the governor was wont to release
unto the people a prisoner, whom they would.
16 And they had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas.
17 Therefore when they were gathered together, Pilate
said unto them, Whom will ye that I release unto you? Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ?
18 For he knew that for envy they
had delivered him.
he was set down on the judgment seat, his wife sent unto him, saying, Have thou nothing to do with that just man: for I have
suffered many things this day in a dream because of him.
20 But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitude that
they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus.
21 The governor answered and said unto them, Whether of the twain will ye that I release unto
you? They said, Barabbas.
saith unto them, What shall I do then with Jesus which is called Christ? They all say unto him, Let him be crucified.
23 And the governor said,
Why, what evil hath he done? But they cried out the more, saying, Let him be crucified.
24 When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing,
but that rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the
blood of this just person: see ye to it.
25 Then answered all the people, and said, His blood be on us, and on our children.
26 Then released he Barabbas
unto them: and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified.
27 Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into
the common hall, and gathered unto him the whole band of soldiers.
28 And they stripped him, and put on him a scarlet robe.
29 And when they had platted
a crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand: and they bowed the knee before him, and mocked
him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews!
30 And they spit upon him, and took the reed, and smote him on the head.
31 And after that they
had mocked him, they took the robe off from him, and put his own raiment on him, and led him away to crucify him.
32 And as they came out,
they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross.
33 And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha,
that is to say, a place of a skull,
34 They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof, he would
they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They
parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots.
36 And sitting down they watched him there;
37 And set up over his head
his accusation written, This Is Jesus The King Of The Jews.
38 Then were there two thieves
crucified with him, one on the right hand, and another on the left.
39 And they that passed by reviled him, wagging their heads,
40 And saying, Thou that
destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself. If thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross.
41 Likewise also the chief
priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders, said,
42 He saved others; himself he cannot save. If he be the King of Israel, let
him now come down from the cross, and we will believe him.
43 He trusted in God; let him deliver him now, if he will have him:
for he said, I am the Son of God.
44 The thieves also, which were crucified with him, cast the same in his teeth.
45 Now from the sixth hour
there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour.
46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying,
Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
47 Some of them that stood there,
when they heard that, said, This man calleth for Elias.
48 And straightway one of them ran, and took a spunge, and filled it with vinegar,
and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink.
49 The rest said, Let be, let us see whether Elias will come to save him.
50 Jesus, when he had cried
again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost.
51 And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the
bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent;
52 And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose,
53 And came out of the graves
after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto many.
54 Now when the centurion, and they that were with
him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, Truly this was the
Son of God.
many women were there beholding afar off, which followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering unto him:
56 Among which was Mary
Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedees children.
57 When the even was come, there came a rich man of
Arimathaea, named Joseph, who also himself was Jesus' disciple:
58 He went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded
the body to be delivered.
when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth,
60 And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the
rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed.
61 And there was Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary,
sitting over against the sepulchre.
62 Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, the chief priests and Pharisees
came together unto Pilate,
Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while he was yet alive, After three days I will rise again.
64 Command therefore that
the sepulchre be made sure until the third day, lest his disciples come by night, and steal him away, and say unto the people,
He is risen from the dead: so the last error shall be worse than the first.
65 Pilate said unto them, Ye have a watch: go your
way, make it as sure as ye can.
66 So they went, and made the sepulchre sure, sealing the stone, and setting a watch.
28 King James Version (KJV)
1 In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward
the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.
2 And, behold, there was a great earthquake:
for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it.
3 His countenance was like
lightning, and his raiment white as snow:
4 And for fear of him the keepers did shake, and became as dead men.
5 And the angel answered and said unto
the women, Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified.
6 He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come,
see the place where the Lord lay.
7 And go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead; and, behold, he goeth
before you into Galilee; there shall ye see him: lo, I have told you.
8 And they departed quickly from the sepulchre with fear and great
joy; and did run to bring his disciples word.
9 And as they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, All
hail. And they came and held him by the feet, and worshipped him.
10 Then said Jesus unto them, Be not afraid: go tell my brethren
that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me.
11 Now when they were going, behold, some of the watch came into the city, and
shewed unto the chief priests all the things that were done.
12 And when they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel,
they gave large money unto the soldiers,
13 Saying, Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept.
14 And if this come to the
governor's ears, we will persuade him, and secure you.
15 So they took the money, and did as they were taught: and this saying is commonly
reported among the Jews until this day.
16 Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into a mountain where Jesus had appointed
when they saw him, they worshipped him: but some doubted.
18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given
unto me in heaven and in earth.
19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the
Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world.
John 3 King James Version (KJV)
1 There was
a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews:
2 The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know
that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him.
3 Jesus answered and said
unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.
4 Nicodemus saith unto him,
How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born?
5 Jesus answered, Verily,
verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.
6 That which is born of the
flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.
7 Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again.
8 The wind bloweth where
it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one
that is born of the Spirit.
answered and said unto him, How can these things be?
10 Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest
not these things?
verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness.
12 If I have told you earthly
things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things?
13 And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that
came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven.
14 And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must
the Son of man be lifted up:
whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life.
16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son,
that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.
17 For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn
the world; but that the world through him might be saved.
18 He that believeth on him is not condemned: but he that believeth
not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.
19 And this is the condemnation,
that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil.
20 For every one that doeth
evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved.
21 But he that doeth truth cometh to the light, that
his deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought in God.
22 After these things came Jesus and his disciples into the land of
Judaea; and there he tarried with them, and baptized.
23 And John also was baptizing in Aenon near to Salim, because there was much
water there: and they came, and were baptized.
24 For John was not yet cast into prison.
25 Then there arose a question between some of John's
disciples and the Jews about purifying.
26 And they came unto John, and said unto him, Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond Jordan, to
whom thou barest witness, behold, the same baptizeth, and all men come to him.
27 John answered and said, A man can receive nothing,
except it be given him from heaven.
28 Ye yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ, but that I am sent before
that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth greatly
because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled.
30 He must increase, but I must decrease.
31 He that cometh from above is above
all: he that is of the earth is earthly, and speaketh of the earth: he that cometh from heaven is above all.
32 And what he hath seen
and heard, that he testifieth; and no man receiveth his testimony.
33 He that hath received his testimony hath set to his seal that God
he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him.
35 The Father loveth the
Son, and hath given all things into his hand.
36 He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth
not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him.
John 6 King James Version (KJV)
these things Jesus went over the sea of Galilee, which is the sea of Tiberias.
2 And a great multitude followed him, because they
saw his miracles which he did on them that were diseased.
3 And Jesus went up into a mountain, and there he sat with his disciples.
4 And the passover,
a feast of the Jews, was nigh.
5 When Jesus then lifted up his eyes, and saw a great company come unto him,
he saith unto Philip, Whence shall we buy bread, that these may eat?
6 And this he said to prove him: for he himself
knew what he would do.
7 Philip answered him, Two hundred pennyworth of bread is not sufficient for them, that every
one of them may take a little.
8 One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, saith unto him,
9 There is a
lad here, which hath five barley loaves, and two small fishes: but what are they among so many?
10 And Jesus
said, Make the men sit down. Now there was much grass in the place. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand.
11 And Jesus
took the loaves; and when he had given thanks, he distributed to the disciples, and the disciples to them that were set down;
and likewise of the fishes as much as they would.
12 When they were filled, he said unto his disciples, Gather up the
fragments that remain, that nothing be lost.
13 Therefore they gathered them together, and filled twelve baskets
with the fragments of the five barley loaves, which remained over and above unto them that had eaten.
14 Then those
men, when they had seen the miracle that Jesus did, said, This is of a truth that prophet that should come into the world.
15 When Jesus
therefore perceived that they would come and take him by force, to make him a king, he departed again into a mountain himself
when even was now come, his disciples went down unto the sea,
17 And entered into a ship, and went over the sea
toward Capernaum. And it was now dark, and Jesus was not come to them.
18 And the sea arose by reason of a great wind
when they had rowed about five and twenty or thirty furlongs, they see Jesus walking on the sea, and drawing nigh unto the
ship: and they were afraid.
20 But he saith unto them, It is I; be not afraid.
21 Then they
willingly received him into the ship: and immediately the ship was at the land whither they went.
22 The day
following, when the people which stood on the other side of the sea saw that there was none other boat there, save that one
whereinto his disciples were entered, and that Jesus went not with his disciples into the boat, but that his disciples were
gone away alone;
23 (Howbeit there came other boats from Tiberias nigh unto the place where they did eat bread,
after that the Lord had given thanks:)
24 When the people therefore saw that Jesus was not there, neither his disciples,
they also took shipping, and came to Capernaum, seeking for Jesus.
25 And when they had found him on the other side
of the sea, they said unto him, Rabbi, when camest thou hither?
26 Jesus answered them and said, Verily, verily,
I say unto you, Ye seek me, not because ye saw the miracles, but because ye did eat of the loaves, and were filled.
27 Labour not
for the meat which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of man shall give unto
you: for him hath God the Father sealed.
28 Then said they unto him, What shall we do, that we might work the
works of God?
29 Jesus answered and said unto them, This is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom he
said therefore unto him, What sign shewest thou then, that we may see, and believe thee? what dost thou work?
31 Our fathers
did eat manna in the desert; as it is written, He gave them bread from heaven to eat.
32 Then Jesus said unto them,
Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not that bread from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from
the bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world.
34 Then said they unto him,
Lord, evermore give us this bread.
35 And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall
never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst.
36 But I said unto you, That ye also have seen
me, and believe not.
37 All that the Father giveth me shall come to me; and him that cometh to me I will in no wise
I came down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me.
39 And this is the Father's
will which hath sent me, that of all which he hath given me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the last
this is the will of him that sent me, that every one which seeth the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life:
and I will raise him up at the last day.
41 The Jews then murmured at him, because he said, I am the bread
which came down from heaven.
42 And they said, Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother
we know? how is it then that he saith, I came down from heaven?
43 Jesus therefore answered and said unto them,
Murmur not among yourselves.
44 No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I
will raise him up at the last day.
45 It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God. Every
man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.
46 Not that any man hath seen
the Father, save he which is of God, he hath seen the Father.
47 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth
on me hath everlasting life.
48 I am that bread of life.
49 Your fathers did eat manna in the wilderness,
and are dead.
50 This is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that a man may eat thereof, and not die.
51 I am the
living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread that I will
give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.
52 The Jews therefore strove among themselves,
saying, How can this man give us his flesh to eat?
53 Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except
ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you.
54 Whoso eateth my flesh,
and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day.
55 For my flesh is meat indeed,
and my blood is drink indeed.
56 He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him.
57 As the living
Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father: so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me.
58 This is
that bread which came down from heaven: not as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead: he that eateth of this bread shall
live for ever.
59 These things said he in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum.
60 Many therefore
of his disciples, when they had heard this, said, This is an hard saying; who can hear it?
61 When Jesus knew in himself
that his disciples murmured at it, he said unto them, Doth this offend you?
62 What and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend
up where he was before?
63 It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto
you, they are spirit, and they are life.
64 But there are some of you that believe not. For Jesus knew from
the beginning who they were that believed not, and who should betray him.
65 And he said, Therefore said I unto you, that
no man can come unto me, except it were given unto him of my Father.
66 From that time many of his disciples went back,
and walked no more with him.
67 Then said Jesus unto the twelve, Will ye also go away?
68 Then Simon
Peter answered him, Lord, to whom shall we go? thou hast the words of eternal life.
69 And we believe and are
sure that thou art that Christ, the Son of the living God.
70 Jesus answered them, Have not I chosen you twelve,
and one of you is a devil?
71 He spake of Judas Iscariot the son of Simon: for he it was that should betray him, being one
of the twelve.